This guide focuses on the interaction between Controller and View in the Model-View-Controller triangle. As you know, the Controller is responsible for orchestrating the whole process of handling a request in Rails, though it normally hands off any heavy code to the Model. But then, when it's time to send a response back to the user, the Controller hands things off to the View.

It's that handoff that is the subject of this guide. In broad strokes, this involves deciding what should be sent as the response and calling an appropriate method to create that response. If the response is a full-blown view, Rails also does some extra work to wrap the view in a layout and possibly to pull in partial views. You'll see all of those paths later in this guide. You've heard that Rails promotes "convention over configuration". Default rendering is an excellent example of this.

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By default, controllers in Rails automatically render views with names that correspond to valid routes. For example, if you have this code in your BooksController class:. However a coming soon screen is only minimally useful, so you will soon create your Book model and add the index action to BooksController :.

Note that we don't have explicit render at the end of the index action in accordance with "convention over configuration" principle. If we want to display the properties of all the books in our view, we can do so with an ERB template like this:. The actual rendering is done by nested classes of the module ActionView::Template::Handlers. This guide does not dig into that process, but it's important to know that the file extension on your view controls the choice of template handler.

In most cases, the ActionController::Base render method does the heavy lifting of rendering your application's content for use by a browser. There are a variety of ways to customize the behavior of render. You can render the default view for a Rails template, or a specific template, or a file, or inline code, or nothing at all. You can specify the content type or HTTP status of the rendered response as well.

This method takes exactly the same options as renderbut it returns a string instead of sending a response back to the browser. If you want to render the view that corresponds to a different template within the same controller, you can use render with the name of the view:.

rails 5 render json

If the call to update fails, calling the update action in this controller will render the edit. What if you want to render a template from an entirely different controller from the one that contains the action code? Rails knows that this view belongs to a different controller because of the embedded slash character in the string.

If you want to be explicit, you can use the :template option which was required on Rails 2. The above three ways of rendering rendering another template within the controller, rendering a template within another controller, and rendering an arbitrary file on the file system are actually variants of the same action. In fact, in the BooksController class, inside of the update action where we want to render the edit template if the book does not update successfully, all of the following render calls would all render the edit.

Which one you use is really a matter of style and convention, but the rule of thumb is to use the simplest one that makes sense for the code you are writing. The render method can do without a view completely, if you're willing to use the :inline option to supply ERB as part of the method call.In this post, I have shed some light on the problems involved in these methods and how Jbuilder can help you overcome those problems. For example, if your application has many articles and you want a JSON representation of a particular article, then you would probably have this code in the show action of articles controller:.

But the JSON returned includes all of the article's attributes and you cannot customize it. This is still fine but the moment the complexity of your customization increases, the code starts getting ugly. For example, apart from the three fields shown in the above example, if you also wanted the author of the article and three fields from comments of the article to be included in the JSON response, you could do something as follows:.

It's like trasferring the ugly code from controller to model. Here, we have to manually create or craft the JSON in the ERB template to be rendered and it becomes pretty hard to manage it when the structures are huge. When there are conditionals involved while rendering then also it becomes difficult to maintain. Also, when you are looping a collection you have to ensure that there is no comma after the last element.

And certainly, you don't want to be doing things like these. Jbuilder is a template engine for rendering JSON responses. You can have Jbuilder in your applications through its gem. In this case it will look for a template named show.

Next, you can create the view template show. You will have access to the json object on which you can define attributes. Instead of listing out each attribute separately, we can call extract!

Jbuilder allows you to do more complex things than just listing down the attributes. For example if you want to assign a URL to the author, you can just pass a block to the author and call helper methods inside the block:.

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Key formatting can be used to convert keynames from the standard ruby format to camel case. Toggle navigation. Home Community Blog.This method is deprecated or moved on the latest stable version. The last existing version v2. These similar methods exist in v5. Action rendering is the most common form and the type used automatically by Action Controller when nothing else is specified.

By default, actions are rendered within the current layout if one exists. Partial rendering in a controller is most commonly used together with Ajax calls that only update one or a few elements on a page without reloading.

Rendering of partials from the controller makes it possible to use the same partial template in both the full-page rendering by calling it from within the template and when sub-page updates happen from the controller action responding to Ajax calls.

By default, the current layout is not used. Note that the partial filename must also be a valid Ruby variable name, so e. Rendering will automatically insert the etag header on OK responses. The etag is calculated using MD5 of the response body.

If a request comes in that has a matching etag, the response will be changed to a Not Modified and the response body will be set to an empty string. Template rendering works just like action rendering except that it takes a path relative to the template root.

The current layout is automatically applied.

rails 5 render json

File rendering works just like action rendering except that it takes a filesystem path. By default, the path is assumed to be absolute, and the current layout is not applied. Rendering of text is usually used for tests or for rendering prepared content, such as a cache.

By default, text rendering is not done within the active layout. The :text option can also accept a Proc object, which can be used to:. Two arguments are passed to the proc, a response object and an output object. The response object is equivalent to the return value of the ActionController::Base response method, and can be used to control various things in the HTTP response, such as setting the Content-Type header.

The output object is an writable IO-like object, so one can call write and flush on it. The following example demonstrates how one can stream a large amount of on-the-fly generated data to the browser:. Rendering of an inline template works as a cross between text and action rendering where the source for the template is supplied inline, like text, but its interpreted with ERb or Builder, like action.

Rails API: Rendering Views with JBuilder - [009]

By default, ERb is used for rendering and the current layout is not used.Thus, building API endpoints is a very important tasks these days. Rails has been pretty adoptive when it comes to supporting what community is up to. Rails started supporting API only application from Rails 5.

Creating Rails 5 API only application following JSON:API specification

There are quite a few options to build json response in Rails application. Listing down a couple of widely used gems to build them. Both of them have their pros and cons to consider. In this article, we will just consider building json API response with jbuilder.

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This article helps understand, how to render JSON responses in general. Jbuilder is particularly good at following things:. We will also take a look at rendering json reopnses from controller with JBuilder.

Then, reusing same JSON reponse in jbuilder view file and models. Rails API only application is a slimmed down version of Rails application. It does not contain gems that are usually required for front-end specific implementation. For e. This command also performs bundle install to resolve dependencies and install them in order to run the application. Rails API only app that is generated in Step 1, has following lines in commented format as given below. We will use faker to quickly add some dummy data to the data model that we created in Step 3.

We will just use faker gem to generate some fake data in development and test environments. Then, perform. Now that we have Rails API only application ready with jbuilder and some data in place, we can use jbuilder to repond with json to API requests. This step will setup RESTful routes for categories resource. Create a directory categories if it does not exist.

rails renderの基礎から使い方まで(partial, 引数)

Run the command given below from project root. Create a file index. We can use partials to render json response which is required in multiple APIs. Create ArticlesController with the help of Rails generator with command given below. Create a directory articles if it does not exist. As we can see, each article node in the json response contains category node with details of the category.

Rendering JSON responses using Jbuilder

This gets rendered by the jbuilder partial which was generated for category.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Rails is looking for that template and can't find it, so it raises an error. Antarr's answer provides a good solution.

For your situation I would simplify it to the following, since I doubt you're supporting more than one response format for your API. Note I also took out the location parameter because I'm not sure what it's supposed to do. Learn more. Asked 3 years, 3 months ago. Active 3 years, 3 months ago.

Viewed 4k times. I have an API-only Rails 5 app. This comment on how to set default format solved my issue: stackoverflow. Active Oldest Votes. Michael Hewson Michael Hewson 7 7 silver badges 15 15 bronze badges. The "show" template is a jbuilder one.

But why does it not fail on update? Antarr Byrd Antarr Byrd Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown.

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Dark Mode Beta - help us root out low-contrast and un-converted bits.Also, I'll cover token authentication using some of the new Rails 5 features. All code from this article is available on GitHub. Rails 5 have new --api flag that you can use when creating new application.

That will create lightweight Rails application suitable for serving only API data. This was originally started as separated gem called rails-api but now is part of Rails 5. JSON : API is specification that defines how server had to deliver JSON response, how client should format request, how to implement filtering, sorting, pagination, handle errors, describe relationship between data, HTTP status codes that server need to return and other things.

Specification is originally extracted from ember-data library, but you can find JSON : API libraries for different languages and frameworks.

rails 5 render json

In order to show most of the features described in this article, I'm going to build simple "blog" style application where all registered users can post articles. To keep everything simple, this is not going to be full application. I'll implement users, authentication and articles, but not commenting on articles. Also, I'm not going to implement any "blog" features that have little or nothing to do with the topic of this article, for instance password resetting, user authorization based on roles, etc….

After that, you can generate new API only application using:.

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Please, check other options that rails provides with rails -h. CORS is a mechanism that allows restricted resources on a web page to be requested from another domain outside the domain from which the resource originated. Application generated with --api will generate CORS initializer, but rack-cors gem is still disabled in generated Gemfile. Enable it there and then run bundle to install it. You can find some examples on rack-cors GitHub repo. For this example I'll use defaults from generated file, with exception of origins.

I'll remove example. In this case I don't care where request came from. Run bundle to install this gem. Here is what I added in development. One of important aspects when creating users is authentication. In demo application only authenticated users can create or edit posts. As alternative, you can use Devise gem with build in token authentication or use it with JWT.

Let start with a migration. Run rails g migration CreateUsers and edit new file like this:. One of changes in Rails 5 is that migrations are now versioned.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again.

This is particularly helpful when the generation process is fraught with conditionals and loops. Here's a simple example:. You can either use Jbuilder stand-alone or directly as an ActionView template language.

When required in Rails, you can create views a la show. You can use partials as well. It will take care of mapping the passed in object to a variable for the partial. Fragment caching is supported, it uses Rails. Jbuilder is the work of many contributors. You're encouraged to submit pull requests, propose features and discuss issues. Jbuilder is released under the MIT License. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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Ruby Branch: master. Find file.

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Sign in Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit. Latest commit 5abd Mar 28, Class Definition Any helpers available to views are available to the builder json.

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